TMF USEFUL refences1



BACTERIA: The increasingly observed speed-up role of bacteria even in making cave formations (as well as the cave itself), is perhaps the most provocative technical data in this book, therefore we include the most references to this.

BACTERIA: Carve huge caverns out of solid rock. Bugs go spelunking

BACTERIA: Role in cave formations

BACTERIA: Form calcium carbonate cement

BACTERIA: Form calcite and aragonite rapidly Gram-positive Bacillus and Virigbacillus isolated from seawater.


BACTERIA: HELICTITES Tisato, N. et al., “Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures”, Sci. Rep. 5, 15525; doi: 10.1038/srep15525 (2015)

BACTERIA: form limestone rock Sedimentary Geology –Volume 126, Issues 14, July 1999, Pages 9–23

Ca-carbonates precipitation and limestone genesis — the microbiogeologist point of view doi:10.1016/S0037-0738(99)00028-7

BACTERIA: Form calcium carbonate to make sandstone. Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research 1 (2011) 98- 114

Bioprecipitation of Calcium Carbonate Crystals by Bacteria Isolated from Saline Environments Grown in Culture Media Amended with Seawater and Real Brine


BAT FOSSIL : The bat in the stalagmite was published in National Geographic in October 1953. The stalagmite was from Carlsbad National Park caves, but we cannot find any mention of it on the Carlsbad site or the National Parks site.

BUTTERFLIES: “Butterflies shine brighter by design” Nature News 17 November 2005, Nature doi:10.1038/news051114-11

DICKENS: Fossils Squids, Dickens Journals Online ( `Mary Anning, the Fossil-Finder' by Anon. All the Year Round, Volume XIII, Magazine No. 303, 11 February 1865, Pages: 60-63

EUSEBIUS: The oldest written evidence of the Lebanese fish fossils dates to CIRCA 325 A.D. when Eusebius of Caesarea, known as the father of church history, considered them as the witnesses of Noah's deluge. "The Chronicle" translated from "Classical Armenian". page 23 (fossils in Lebanon).

HAND FUNCTION: Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living, Ming-Jin Liu, Cai-Hua Xiong, Le Xiong, and Xiao-Lin Huang, Published online 5 January 2016, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146193

LYELL CHARLES: Letter to George Scropes [fellow uniformitarian geologist and Member of Parliament], 14 June 1830.

LYELL'S AIM “… to free the science from Moses.” Letter to Poulet Scrope, 14 June 1830. In Lyell 1881, vol 1, p268 Letters published by his sister in law, Katherine Lyell: “Life, Letters and Journals of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart”. Chapter XI:268-271. John Murray, London, 1881.

NATURE FROGS: Fossil Frog: An Early Jurassic jumping frog Neil H. Shubin & Farish A. Jenkins Jr. Nature volume 377, pages 49–52, 7 September 1995

SQUID INK: “Ink found in Jurassic-era squid” BBC News 19 August 2009

SYGUN MINE: BACTERIA and Iron Stalactites Chemical Geology 180 (2001) 117-128 in calcium carbonate and carbon dioxide, these can grow at 3mm (0.12 inches) per year. 

STALACTITE GROWTH RATE: Average is 0.13mm (0.0051")/year. The quickest growing stalactites are those formed by fast-flowing water rich in calcium carbonate and carbon dioxide, these can grow at 3mm (0.12 inches) per year.

STALACTITES ON BRIDGES: Stalactites under concrete bridges can grow as fast as a centimetre per year.

STALACTITES ON BRIDGES: Fastest 40 mm (4cm)/yr (1.6 inches/yr)

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