Archive of items from Evidence News

Plant roots see the light, according to reports in ScienceDaily 3 November 2016, and Science Signalling, doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aaf6530, 1 November 2016. Light is a source of energy for plants, and is also a stimulus for plants to grow and develop. In order to detect changes in the light environment plants have photoreceptors that detect light and send chemical signals that stimulate growth and development in the whole plant. The optical receptors are most sensitive to red and far red light and are found in both the shoots and the roots.

Having photoreceptors in roots, which are buried in soil where there isn’t any light, seems rather odd, so a group of biologists and physicists set out to see if light can be conveyed to the roots through the plant stems, and if it makes a difference to the growth of the plant.

The research team developed a highly sensitive light detector that could detect any light conveyed from the shoots to the roots. Chung-Mo Park, who led the research explained: “With this approach, we could show clearly and without ambiguity that light is transmitted into the roots via vascular bundles”. Vascular bundles are the internal pipes that carry water and dissolved minerals and nutrients through the plant.

The researchers also studied the effect of light on genetically modified Arabidopsis plants that did not have the photoreceptors in their roots, but still had them in their shoots. This meant the roots could receive chemical signals sent from the shoots, but not direct light stimulus, i.e. the roots were blind to light. The blind rooted plants did not develop roots as well as normal plants even though the above ground parts of the plant were illuminated and the roots could receive chemical signals sent from the shoots.

Ian Baldwin, another scientist on the team commented: “Our work proves that roots are able to perceive light, even though they are usually found below ground. Photoreception in the roots triggers a signalling chain which influences plant growth, especially the root architecture”.

ScienceDaily

Editorial Comment: And we thought we invented light pipes, otherwise known as fibre-optic cables. These are not the first living things to be found that use light pipes. We have some in the retina in our eyes, as do all vertebrates. They are also found in sponges that live on the bottom of the sea.

Furthermore, there is no point in having a fibre-optic system unless there is something at the other end that needs the light, such as the root photoreceptors, but the light receptors are useless without the light pipes to convey light to them.

These “what came first” questions, aka the Chicken and Egg Syndrome, are a chronic problem for evolutionists, because they just keep cropping up the more research we do into how living things work. However, they are no problem for the God who created the light on the first day, and made the plants as complete fully functioning organisms well designed to use the light, on the third day. (Ref. botany, photoreceptors, plant physiology)

Evidence News vol. 16, No.22
24 November 2016
Creation Research Australia

 

Why diving birds don’t break their necks revealed in reports in ScienceDaily 5 October 2016 and PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1608628113, published online 4 October 2016. A group of scientists at Virginia Tech have carried out a study of the biomechanics involved to find out why diving birds don’t break their slender, apparently fragile necks. Some diving seabirds, such as gannets and boobies, can plunge head first into the water at speeds of up to 24m/s. This would really be a “breakneck speed” for a human diver.

The research team studied the structure of the bones and muscles of a gannet’s head and neck, and made a 3D model of a gannet skull in order to study the forces impinging on the skull as it entered the water. They also made a simplified model using 3D printed cone on a flexible stem and plunged this into water, noting the effects of changing the cone angle, neck length, and impact speed.

They found a combination of factors that prevented the neck from buckling. These were the shape of the head, the material properties of the neck, and the impact speed. The birds also contracted their neck muscles, which not only stiffen the neck but straighten it out from its normal S-shape.

The researchers who led this study are working with a Virginia Tech design team on a “gannet-inspired underwater projectile for autonomous sensing.”

ScienceDaily

Editorial Comment: Yes, we’ve said it before, but if the scientists and engineers do come up with a gannet-inspired underwater projectile, it won’t work until all the right structures and functions are in place. Note the number of structural and dynamic factors that have to be right before birds can succeed at plunge diving. They have to have the right head, neck and beak shape, with the right material properties, they need to know when to contract their neck muscles, and be able to generate enough speed to penetrate the water and overcome the drag in the water, but not so fast that they break their necks.

All of these factors have to be in place before diving gannets could pass the “survival of fittest” test, so they cannot have evolved one by one by chance evolution. Multiple combinations of structural and behaviour factors require plan and purpose.

We are not sure why the birds, who were all originally created vegetarian, (Genesis 1:26-31) would want to dive into water at high speeds. Maybe the tastiest seaweed for them was deep under water and they needed the extra speed, or then again, as someone who has climbed to the top of waterfalls simply so my mates and I could dive or jump off, purely for the thrill, these birds simply dive because they like it, and God does too. Any other suggestions?

Whatever the reason, they couldn’t do it unless they were the work of the Creative Designer Christ, who made the whole bird to be a fully functional shock avoiding machine from the very beginning. (Ref. ornithology, seabirds, biomechanics)

Evidence News vol. 16, No.22
24 November 2016
Creation Research Australia

 

Instant Himalayas in dino crater, according to reports in BBC News, Science News 17 November 2016, Science Perspectives 18 November, and Science vol. 354, pp. 878-882 doi: 10.1126/science.aah6561, 18 November 2016. Scientists have drilled into a part of the Chicxulub crater in Mexico to find clues into the formation of peak rings impact craters. Peak rings are the inner rings of peaks found in large impact craters. They are clearly seen on some craters on the moon, rocky planets and other solar system objects, but hard to find on earth. Previous studies of the Chicxulub crater indicated it had peak rings, so a team of geologists have drilled into the crater and studied the rocks they extracted in a drill core.

They found the peaks were formed from “uplifted, fractured, shocked, felsic basement rocks”. These findings are consistent with a theory that the meteor impact made a deep hole in the earth’s crust followed by a rapid series of events described in the Science Perspective article as: “a rim of mountains, higher than the Himalayas, adjacent to a void 25 km deep and about 70 km wide, forming and collapsing within the first three minutes; the central fluidized peak rising and collapsing in minutes 3 to 4; and a shakedown period in minutes 5 to 10, leaving a shallow crater at the surface, an intensely deformed impact zone extending through the thickness of the Earth’s crust and beyond, and the world changed forever”.

What changed forever, according to this and just about every other article on the Chicxulub crater, is that the dinosaurs died out and the age of mammals began. The headline of the Science News article is “Drilling of dinosaur-killing impact crater explains buried circular hills”. The Perspective article goes onto state: “Conditions for some forms of life would have been drastically affected worldwide, leading to the famous end-Cretaceous mass extinction and ultimately the conditions favourable for the evolution of mammals and hence humans”.

BBC, ScienceNews 

Editorial Comment: It seems rapid catastrophic processes are now quite acceptable to evolutionary geologists if they can be associated with meteorites and dinosaurs. Ever since the asteroid theory was advanced for dinosaur extinction any reference to this crater is always embellished with claims about it being responsible for the demise of the dinosaurs. We wonder whether anyone beyond the geophysics community would have ever heard of this crater if it had been found in rocks that had been assigned some other date older or younger than 66 million years, which the evolutionists had already declared to be the end of the Cretaceous – the end of the dinosaur age.

This theory appeared to be confirmed when a layer containing unusual amounts of iridium was found immediately above the Cretaceous layer in various parts of the world. Since the micro fine iridium would never be laid down if dinosaurs, or even worms, were active, then time to fess up you evolutionary catastrophists, this iridium is not the cause. If it was it should be underneath the last layer to contain dinosaurs. As the layer is claimed to be above the Cretaceous then the dinosaurs had already died out when it was deposited if the geological column represents the history of evolution.

A meteorite impact of this magnitude certainly would have been a catastrophic disaster and would have killed many animals and plants in the region around it, plus the debris thrown into the atmosphere certainly would have affected the climate all over the earth, in the same way volcanic eruptions still do. However, that does not explain why large coldblooded reptilian dinosaurs died out while many other coldblooded large and small creatures, some more susceptible to environmental changes, e.g. frogs, are still here.

Furthermore, evolutionists also need to acknowledge that the death of one kind of creature never explains the origin of any other kinds of creatures. New creatures can only be formed when there is new genetic information. An empty environment will not change a reptile into a mammal or a bird. Therefore, to claim mass extinctions led to new creatures evolving is just airy fairy thinking by those who do not want to admit a Creator who made all living creatures in the beginning, and judged the earth following human sin, and still has the right to judge it. (Ref. extinction, meteorites, geophysics, catastrophe)

Evidence News vol. 16,
No.22 24 November 2016
Creation Research Australia

 

Earthquake lifts NZ coast by metres, according to report in Geonet NZ 21 November 2016. Geologists have surveyed the coastline near the site of the Kaikoura Earthquake in New Zealand. They mapped the coastline from Conway River to Cape Campbell and took measurements of coastal uplift and report: “Our records measured the tide gauge at Kaikoura was lifted up by 1m, and continuous GPS monitoring sites at Kaikoura and Cape Campbell were also raised by 0.7-0.9m. At this stage we can estimate that the coast was raised between 0.5m and 2m from about 20km south of Kaikoura all the way north to Cape Campbell. Scientists plan to find out more about this coastal uplift”.

One small localised block pushed up between two arms of the Papatea Fault at Waipapa Bay was raised by a massive 5.5m (18 feet).

This is not the first time major land uplifts have happened in NZ. According to Geonet NZ, “in 1931 the M7.8 Hawkes Bay earthquake raised land around Napier by 1-2m above sea level. Land that used to be estuary now provides space for Napier airport. In 1855 the M8.2 Wairarapa earthquake raised much of Wellington by 1-2m”. There is also evidence of raised beaches in Kaikoura Peninsula, Wairarapa coast, Cape Kidnappers, Mahia Peninsula, north of Gisborne and East Cape.

Geonet NZ

Editorial Comment: This is a good reminder that coastlines are never fixed, and in our earthquake ridden world land masses are rising and falling all the time. All of which means the level of where sea meets land is also always changing. Usually the changes are not as drastic as has occurred in NZ, but we need to keep it in mind when the global warming lobby groups want to scare people about sea level changes. So far they have not managed to blame earthquakes on man-made technology, and so far we show no sign of being able to predict or control them.

For those who want a real and tough love Biblical view remember the Creator God is able to predict and to do something about earthquakes, so the challenge this makes is for all of us to put our faith in our Maker and Judge who can and does send earthquakes. (Ref. geology, landforms, geography, seismology)

Evidence News vol. 16, No.22
24 November 2016
Creation Research Australia

 

No wonder trump won as BBC News and World Meteorological Organisation November 14, 2016 proclaim this year will be world’s warmest year on record and this has been mimicked by media everywhere. According to the BBC, scientists are 90% certain 2016 will be the hottest year on record, based on nine months of data for this year. To make their point the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) have published a somewhat blurry graphic, reproduced in the BBC article, entitled “Global Temperatures – change from pre-industrial” showing an impressive looking increase from the middle of the period included in the graph. Looking closely the time period is from 1880 to 2020, and the steep rise begins in the 1970’s. The WMO goes on to list a plethora of natural disasters it attributes to the warming, including hurricanes, storms, floods, wildfires, heat waves and droughts. According to the BBC, “Scientists are stressing that the evidence for the reality of climate change is getting stronger all the time.”

BBC, WMO

Editorial Comment: “On record” eh? Whenever you see claims like this you need to ask: whose records, and what time span do they really cover? The reason they have chosen 1880 is because regular measurements of weather conditions (temperature, humidity, pressure, etc.) using instrumental weather stations did not get underway until the latter part of the 19th century. At that time official weather stations would have been mainly in sea ports, because sailors needed the information. In the whole of the UK there were less than 100 for the first few decades after 1880. The number of stations increased dramatically in the mid-20th century, with many around airports, because flyers needed accurate weather reports particularly with warplanes being used. And this airport location is now one of the modern fudge factors as the high temp jet exhausts contribute to out of whack readings on a huge scale. Hi tech satellite observations and remote sensing only go back to the 1970’s.

“Hottest year on record” may sound impressive, but the period 1880 to 2020 is not actually the history of the world, especially when you note that most media and climate activists, who claim the warming is man-made, believe man appeared on the planet some millions of years ago.

Furthermore, as 2016 is not over yet, and the scientists admit they only have nine months of data, you wonder why this story is being presented as scientific news now. Perhaps it is not just coincidence that the story was published when a) there was a UN climate summit meeting, and b) more importantly, news services are all filled with outrage about Donald Trump being elected the next US president and Trump is a well-known critic of man-made global warming claims. WMO are also capable of producing a graphic with clear figures, so we can’t help thinking this is a fudge for political purposes.

So, as we started: “No wonder Trump was elected President” as ‘we the people’ are sick of PC scientists and media who are actually Truth deniers, not just re weather but also homosexuality, Islam, evolution etc. (Ref. climate, politics, weather)

Evidence News vol. 16, No.22
24 November 2016
Creation Research Australia

 

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