‘Some contemporary biologists, as soon as they observe a mutation, talk about evolution. They are implicitly supporting the following syllogism (argument): mutations are the only evolutionary variations, all living beings undergo mutations, therefore all living beings evolve. This logical scheme is, however, unacceptable: first, because its major premise is neither obvious nor general; second, because its conclusion does not agree with the facts. No matter how numerous they may be, mutations do not produce any kind of evolution’.

Pierre-Paul Grasse (past-President, French Academie des Sciences) in ‘Evolution of Living Organisms’, Academic Press, New York, 1977, p.88.



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