‘It cannot be denied that from a strictly philosophical standpoint, geologists are here arguing in a circle. The succession of organisms has been determined by the study of their remains imbedded in the rocks, and the relative ages of the rocks are determined by the remains of organisms they contain.’

R.H. Rastall, (Lecturer in Economic Geology, Cambridge University). ‘Encyclopaedia Brittanica’, 1956, vol.10, p.168.

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